Chalazion

Source: all about vision
A chalazion is a benign, painless bump or nodule inside the upper or lower eyelid.
Chalazia (plural for chalazion) result from healed internal styes that no longer are infectious. These cyst-like nodules form around an oil gland (meibomian) within the eyelid, resulting in red, swollen eyelids.
The contents of a chalazion include pus and blocked fatty secretions (lipids) that normally help lubricate the eye but can no longer drain out.

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Cataract

Source: all about vision
A cataract is a clouding of the eye's natural lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil.
Cataracts are the most common cause of vision loss in people over age 40 and is the principal cause of blindness in the world. In fact, there are more cases of cataracts worldwide than there are of glaucoma, macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy combined, according to Prevent Blindness America (PBA).
Today, cataracts affect more than 22 million Americans age 40 and older. And as the U.S. population ages, more than 30 million Americans are expected to have cataracts by the year 2020, PBA says.

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Eye Herpes (Ocular Herpes)

Source: all about vision
Caused by the type 1 herpes simplex virus, eye herpes (ocular herpes) is a common, recurrent viral infection affecting the eyes. This type of herpes virus can cause inflammation and scarring of the cornea that sometimes is referred to as a cold sore on the eye. Herpes of the eye can be transmitted through close contact with an infected person whose virus is active.
The National Eye Institute (NEI) says an estimated 400,000 Americans have experienced some form of ocular herpes, with close to 50,000 new and recurring cases occurring each year.

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